Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female endocrine disorder associated with several risk factors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum adiponectin levels and some metabolic risk factors in PCOS patients.

This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 overweight or obese PCOS patients; aged 20-35 years. Subjects in omega-3 fatty acids (n=32) and placebo (n=32) groups were given 4 omega- 3 fatty acids capsules (each one contained 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexanoic acid) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and 3-day, 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial.

The study was completed by 61 subjects. Omega-3 fatty acids significantly increased serum levels of adiponectin (p=0.003) and decreased glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p=0.002), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p<0.001), total cholesterol (p=0.002) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.003) compared with placebo. Serum levels of triglyceride significantly decreased (p=0.024) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (p=0.018) in the omega-3 fatty acids group, in comparison with baseline values. No significant changes were shown in serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in both groups.

Omega-3 fatty acids had some beneficial effects on serum adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and lipid profile in PCOS patients and may contribute to the improvement of metabolic complications in these patients.