Breast cancer (BC) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease for which estrogens have been recognized as the main risk factor, and for which lifestyle plays a key role. Previous epidemiologic cancer research performed in Uruguayan population delimited its dietary and anthropometric profiles. Recognizing the difficulty for universalizing a nutritional basis for prevention due to different eating patterns among regions and countries, we summarize the existent knowledge linking nutrition, estrogens, metabolism and BC.

As an attempt towards primary prevention of BC, we present recommendations mainly based on country-specific research findings and modifiable putative risk and protective factors, proposing to modify the intake of meats and other fatty foods--especially sources of Ω-6 and Ω-3 fatty acids--adding olive oil, selected vegetables, citrus fruits and working towards adequate body fat/muscle proportions.

From a medical and ethical viewpoint, it is justified to recommend certain nutritional changes to women, because no adverse side effects are expected to occur.