INTRODUCTION: Concentrations of 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D have been positively associated with dietary sodium and salt sensitivity (SS) of blood pressure (BP), and inversely with plasma renin activity (PRA). We investigated the association between PRA and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), the most clinically relevant vitamin D metabolite, and whether 25OHD associates with SS of BP in renin phenotypes of hypertension.

METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses on 223 Caucasian subjects with hypertension maintained in high and low dietary sodium balance. Subjects were distinguished as having low-renin (LR) or normal-renin (NR) hypertension. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate adjusted relationships.

RESULTS: Increasing 25OHD concentrations were inversely associated with PRA (p < 0.05) on both salt diets. Furthermore, 25OHD was associated with SS of BP in LR hypertension (β = 0.62, p = 0.04), but not in NR hypertension (β = 0.06, p = 0.59). In an adjusted multivariable interaction model, renin status (LR vs. NR) was a significant effect modifier of the relationship between 25OHD and SS of BP (p = 0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that 25OHD is inversely associated with PRA and positively associated with SS of BP in LR hypertension subjects. These results extend and support prior evidence indicating an interaction between dietary sodium, the RAS, and vitamin D that influences BP in hypertension.