Current epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may constitute an alternative therapeutic strategy for several disorders of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by motor symptoms but which also includes several other pathological features such as autonomic system failures, mood disorders, and cognitive deficits.

Current pharmacological options for the disease are limited to symptom management and their long-term use leads to important side effects. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the effects of n-3 PUFAs in PD both from an epidemiological perspective as well as in light of data gathered on various pathological features of the disease.

Effects of n-3 PUFAs on the dopaminergic system, α-synucleinopathy, their possible mechanisms of action as well as their therapeutic potential for PD patients are also reviewed. n-3 PUFAs are inexpensive and readily transferable to the clinical setting and their use could represent a neuroprotective strategy or a disease-modifying option to delay the appearance of symptoms.

It could also be beneficial as a symptomatologic treatment or even serve as an add-on therapy to current pharmacological medications. Review of the current literature as well as the undertaking of future clinical trials will shed light on these possibilities.