In the past number of years, the anticancer activities of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) as well as Vitamin D have been intensively studied, but separately.

Supplementation of Vitamin D and omega-3 PUFA via cod-liver oil, one of few natural sources of both of these molecules, may have additive and possibly synergistic anticancer effects. Cod-liver oil has been used effectively to treat diseases such as Rheumatism but has not been studied as an anticancer agent.

This review examines the prominent, striking and possibly important similarities between the anticancer effects of ω3-PUFAs and Vitamin D metabolites as well as the possible overlapping signaling pathways by which they may operate.

The mechanisms that will be examined in this review fall broadly under the categories of being anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative.

Finally, we compare the potential for use of ω3-PUFAs, Vitamin D combinatorial supplementation both in prevention and treatment of disease. Some data also suggests that the timing of supplementation modifies the effects of Vitamin D and ω3 fatty acids.