The 4 reviews clearly indicate the importance of studies of genetic variation involving essential fatty acid metabolism in: (1) the determination of nutritional requirements,
and (2) in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as atopic diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The genetic variants involved in these reviews include FADS1 and FADS2, 5-lipoxygenase and COX-2 genes. A high amount of AA from dietary intake or LA metabolism or AA derivatives is associated with increased risk of CHD and of prostate cancer, where a lower AA in serum phospholipids, possibly as a result of FADS1 and FADS2 variants, is associated with decreased risk of developing atopic illnesses. These studies constitute an excellent example of interaction of nutritional
and genetic factors and their effects on complex phenotypes.

PMID: 19829003

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