Based on a consistent bulk of experimental and epidemiologic works, we proposed that abnormal metabolism and/or dietary deprivation of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids by inducing a chronic and subclinical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) in urothelial cell membranes may enhance the risk for urinary tract tumor (UTT) development.

This threat may be enhanced by the unusual fact that the fatty-acid profile of the normal urothelium is similar to that reported in EFAD. The risk for UTT may be worsened when coexisting with a low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) state induced by urolithiasis or disbalance management of peroxides, free radical molecules, and their quenchers. There is cumulative evidence linking the LGCI of the urinary tract mucosa, calculi, and UTT, due to the long-standing release of promitotic, promutagen, and pro-inflammatory antiapoptotic cytokines in these conditions.

The dual role played by pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids and bioactive lipids, cytokines, and the disbalance of lipid peroxidation is discussed, concluding that the moderate, long-standing consumption or dietary supplementation of ω-3 PUFAs may improve the chances of avoiding UTT development.