Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs, are essential for human health. Recent research shows n-3 PUFAs and their mediators can inhibit inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer via multiple mechanisms, including reduced release of n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid from cell membranes, inhibition of enzymatic activities, and direct competition with arachidonic acid for enzymatic conversions.

In this review, we discuss inflammation-related cancer, anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFA lipid mediators, antineoplastic activities of n-3 PUFA in vitro and in vivo, and present an update on recent human trials