Dietary fat has multiple roles on human health, and some dietary fat is used to treat organic diseases because of its anti-inflammatory effect. It is commonly accepted that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is beneficial on ischemic heart disease or rheumatic arthritis. On the contrary, effect of omega-3-PUFA on Crohn's disease remained controversial. That effect of omega-3 PUFA differs according to the location of inflamed intestine was hypothesized.

To elucidate this hypothesis, to investigate the role of dietary fat on disease activity in different kind of murine models of intestinal inflammatory diseases was planned. The effect of omega-3 PUFA on small intestinal Crohn's disease model and large intestinal Crohn's disease model of mice. Chronic colitis model C57BL/6 mice received two cycles of dextran sodium sulfate solution treatment to induce chronic colitis. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets exacerbated colitis with decrease in adiponectin expression.

Chronic small intestinal inflammation model: SAMP1/Yit mice showed remarkable inflammation of the terminal ileum spontaneously. Feeding of omega-3 fat-rich diets for 16 weeks significantly ameliorated the inflammation of the terminal ileum. Enhanced infiltration of leukocytes and expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in intestinal mucosa was significantly decreased by omega-3 fat-rich diets treatment.

Omega-3 PUFA has dual role, pro-/anti-inflammatory, on intestinal inflammatory diseases. The role of omega-3 fat and the potential for immunonutrition in inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract will be discussed.