Lipids are important for cell function and survival, but abnormal concentrations may lead to various diseases. Cholesterol homeostasis is greatly dependent on the active transport by membrane proteins, whose activities coordinate lipid status with cellular function. Intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) and scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) participate in the uptake of extracellular cholesterol, whereas ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of excessive intracellular cholesterol. Caveolin-1 binds cholesterol and fatty acids (FA) and participates in cholesterol trafficking. Sterol response element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a sensor that regulates intracellular cholesterol synthesis. Given that cholesterol is a constituent of chylomicrons, whose synthesis is enhanced with an increased FA supply, we tested the hypothesis that feeding polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-enriched diets in treatment of canine chronic enteropathies alters the mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we compared the mRNA abundance of NPC1L1, SR-B1, ABCA1, caveolin-1, and SREBP-2 in duodenal mucosal biopsies of dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD; n=14) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; n=7) before and after treatment with cholesterol-free PUFA-enriched diets and in healthy controls (n=14). The abundance of caveolin-1, ABCA1, and SREBP-2 were altered by PUFA-enriched diets (P<0.05), whereas that of NPC1L1 and SR-B1 mRNA remained unchanged. The gene expression of caveolin-1, ABCA1, and SREBP-2 was down-regulated (P<0.05) by PUFA-enriched diets in IBD dogs only. Our results suggest that feeding PUFA-enriched diets may alter cholesterol homeostasis in duodenal mucosal cells of dogs suffering from IBD.