Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been linked to a higher risk of colorectal cancer. PGE2 in colon tissue can be reduced by increasing dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The dose-dependent relationships between dietary EPA, serum EPA:arachidonate (AA) ratio, urinary PGE2 metabolites, and colonic eicosanoids were evaluated to develop biomarkers for prediction of colonic PGE2. Male rats were fed diets containing EPA:ω6 fatty acid ratios of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 for 5 weeks. Increasing the dietary EPA:ω6 fatty acid ratio increased EPA:AA ratios in serum and in the proximal, transverse, and distal colon (P < 0.001). The urinary PGE2 metabolite was reduced (P = 0.006). EPA-rich diets reduced colonic tissue PGE2 concentrations by 58% to 66% and increased PGE3 by 19- to 28-fold. Other AA-derived eicosanoids were reduced by 35% to 83%. The changes were not linear, with the largest changes in eicosanoids observed with the lower doses. A mathematical model predicts colonic tissue eicosanoids from the EPA:AA ratio in serum and the EPA dose. Every 10% increase in serum EPA:AA was associated with a 2% decrease in the (geometric) mean of PGE2 in the distal colon. These mathematical relationships can now be applied to individualized EPA dosing in clinical trials.

PMID: 25139294

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