Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy-induced complication with increased prevalence, especially in overweight women. Fatty acid (FA) composition in tissues can reflect dietary fat intake, especially essential FA intake. Moreover, it has been shown that FA profiles in blood lipid fractions are altered in diabetic patients. Consequently, women with GDM may also have a distinctive FA profile. The objective of this review is compare FA profiles in different blood lipid fractions and the influence of dietary fat intake in women with GDM or normoglycemic pregnancies. Results show that women with GDM have more saturated and less polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in their red blood cell (RBC) membranes than normoglycemic pregnant women. Moreover, some studies reported that women with GDM have a greater energy intake from total fat and saturated FA, along with a lower energy intake from PUFA, when compared to normoglycemic pregnancies. Clinical trials showed that omega-3 PUFA levels in RBC membranes of GDM women can be restored by a dietary intervention. Further research is required to determine whether FA profiles are altered prior to the diagnosis of GDM and can be prevented by diet.