In view of the increasing risk of lead on human health, the present study has been carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effect of omega-3 fatty acid on chronic lead-induced neurotoxicity and behavioral impairment in rats.
Different neurobehavioral parameters, biochemical assays, and histopathological analyses in brain regions of rats were conducted.
Rats exposed to different doses of lead (lead acetate 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 90 days) caused a significant decrease in body weight, brain weight, and behavioral changes as compared to controls. Abnormal histopathological and increased levels of lead in blood and brain regions increased the levels of ROS, LPO, PCC and decreased the levels of GSH with concomitant reduction in SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in the brain region of rats treated with different doses of lead as compared to controls. Co-treatment of lead with omega-3 fatty acid (500 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 90 days) decreased the levels of ROS, LPO, PCC, and increased the level of GSH, also increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activity and showed improvements in behavioral as well as histopathological changes as compared to lead-treated groups.
Our results proved that omega-3 fatty acid improved behavioral deficits, altered histopathological and oxidative stress in lead-intoxicated rats. Among three different doses, 2.5 mg/kg b.wt. of lead along with omega-3 fatty acidwas the most preventive dose for the neurotoxicity. This work reveals the potential of omega-fatty acid as a protective drug for lead neurotoxicity.