Intestinal wound healing is a new therapeutic goal for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as complete healing of the mucosa is the key element of clinical remission in IBD. Previous studies showed that termination of inflammation can be achieved by adding pro-resolving lipids like DHA and EPA exogenously. However, the roles of these lipids in mucosal healing have not been investigated. To recapitulate intestinal healing process, mice were received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 days in the drinking water followed by regular tap water for 5 additional days. DSS-induced intestinal inflammation featuring body weight loss, histological tissue damage, increased cytokine production and infiltration of inflammatory cells was gradually reduced upon switching to water. To investigate whether endogenous lipids play a role in mucosal healing, the lipidomics analysis of mouse serum was performed. Reduced levels of arachidonic acid, the biosynthetic precursor of prostaglandin F (PGF)2α, 19H-PGF1α, the metabolite of prostacyclin, and 20H-PGF2α, the metabolite of PGF2α, suggest subsiding inflammation. In contrast, increased levels of an active metabolite of resolvin D1 along with decreased levels of its precursor DHA as well as decreased levels of the precursor of resolvin E, 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid, suggest inauguration of mucosal healing by endogenous lipids. Furthermore, exogenously supplied fish oil enhanced the process even further. These results suggest the presence of mucosal healing regulated by endogenous pro-healing lipids and also indicate that the remission state of IBD could be prolonged by enhancing the levels of these lipids.

PMID: 28800645

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