The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on reducing cardiovascular risks are well documented. However, the relative effect on some markers of macrophage activation and vascular function is unclear.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil on the marker of monocyte/macrophage activation factor soluble CD163, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients.
In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 72 type 2 diabetic patients with an age between 30-70 years and body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to receive 2.4-g DHA-enriched fish oil or placebo per day for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical, and body composition analyses were assessed at baseline and end of study. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted by controlling for possible confounders to assess between-group differences.
Serum levels of sCD163, triglycerides, waist circumference (WC), and weight to height ratio (WHtR) decreased significantly in the fish oil group when compared with the control group. Serum ADMA concentration decreased in the fish oil group with no significant between-group differences. Controlling for confounders revealed that the differences observed in sCD163, triglycerides, WC, and WHtR remained statistically significant.
Short-time fish oil supplementation decreased serum sCD163, triglycerides levels, WC, and WHtR in T2DM patients. Because of the positive relationship between sCD163 levels and some T2DM and obesity-related complications, it seems that DHA can be considered as a key intervention in obesity and T2DM.