A low eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) ratio is a known risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the association between the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to AA ratio and ACS remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between the DHA/AA ratio and ACS by patient characteristics.
We enrolled 1733 patients and evaluated the serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in 5 cardiology departments in a metropolitan area of Japan. We assessed the relationship between the DHA/AA ratio (median cut-off value: 0.903) and ACS according to the following 10 subgroups: sex, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, family history of ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and history of coronary revascularization.
Interaction tests in the 10 subgroup analyses revealed a significant difference for adjusted log odds ratios between male and females (p = 0.01), and those with and without hypertension (p = 0.06). Especially in the subgroup based on sex difference, a high DHA/AA ratio was significantly associated with a low risk of ACS among men (adjusted odds ratio = 0.389; 95 % confidence interval: 0.211-0.716). In contrast, a reverse association was found among women, although this was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio = 3.820; 95 % confidence interval: 0.718-20.325).
The association between the DHA/AA ratio and ACS differed by clinical characteristic. Notably, patients with a low DHA/AA ratio had a higher risk of ACS than those with a high DHA/AA ratio, and this was significant for men in particular.

PMID: 27387342

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