The majority of evidence linking anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3FAs) has focussed on decreased CRC risk (prevention). More recently, preclinical data and human observational studies have begun to make the case for adjuvant treatment of advanced CRC. Herein, we review latest data regarding the effect of O3FAs on post-diagnosis CRC outcomes, including mechanistic preclinical data, evidence that O3FAs have beneficial effects on efficacy and tolerability of CRC chemotherapy, and human epidemiological data linking dietary O3FA intake with CRC outcomes. We also highlight ongoing randomised controlled trials of O3FAs with CRC endpoints and discuss critical gaps in the evidence base, which include limited understanding of the effects of O3FAs on the tumour microenvironment, the host immune response to CRC, and the intestinal microbiome.