Given the ever-increasing number of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, development of new approaches to improve patients’ long-term survival outcomes is a high priority. Recent striking success of immunotherapies in specific clinical circumstances has motivated research to identify novel strategies based on immune modulation to more effectively harness the immune system to combat cancer. Increasing data indicate a considerable influence of diet and lifestyle on CRC prognosis. In turn, diet and lifestyle shape the gut microbiota, which has been associated with CRC incidence and progression and predicts responsiveness to immunotherapy. 1 Despite long-standing evidence that diet and lifestyle as well as the gut microbiome influences the host intestinal and systemic immune system,2 the potential role of lifestyle modification in enhancing the anticancer immune response remains largely unknown. Herein, we review the most recent data regarding how exercise and diet may improve CRC survival via immune and microbial mechanisms and identify critical questions for future research.

PMID 30076837

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