The present study was designed to ascertain the effects of 3 diets with different omega-3/6 fatty acid ratios on infarct size and the modifications that these diets induce in the lipid composition of cardiac tissue. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed omega-3/6 fatty acid diets with 1:1, 1:5, or 1:20 ratios for at least 10 days, followed by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 40 min and 24 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was significantly smaller in the 1:1 group than in the other groups. Significantly higher concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were found in the 1:1 group than in the other groups. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were similar between groups, although they were higher in the 1:5 and 1:20 groups than in the 1:1 group. Margaric acid concentrations were higher in the 1:1 group than in the other groups. Docosahexaenoic acid levels in cardiac tissue and infarct size were significantly correlated with no other significant links being apparent. The present study indicated that a 1:1 omega-3/6 fatty acid ratio protected against ischemia and was associated with increased omega-3 fatty acid composition of cardiac tissue.