Specific fatty acid alterations have been described in the blood and tissues of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The two most consistent alterations include decreased levels of linoleic acid (LA) and decreased levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Increased arachidonic acid (AA) release from membrane phospholipids, as well as changes in levels of AA and other monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have also been described in CF. Although mechanisms of fatty acid alterations have not yet been determined, these alterations may have an important role in the progression of the CF disease. There have been several clinical trials in which CF patients were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. Most trials resulted in an increase in the levels of the supplemental fatty acids in the blood of CF patients in the absence of significant clinical improvement. It is recommended that future trials include a larger population of CF patients and measure multiple clinical outcomes.