PURPOSE: Dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 (LC n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce inflammation and in turn decrease risk of prostate cancer development and progression. This potential effect may be modified by genetic variation in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism and inflammation.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used a case-control study of 466 men diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer and 478 age- and ethnicity-matched controls. Diet was assessed with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and nine COX-2 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for association and interaction.

RESULTS: Increasing intake of LC n-3 was strongly associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Ptrend
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary LC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear protective for aggressive prostate cancer, and this effect is modified by the COX-2 SNP rs4648310. Our findings support the hypothesis that LC n-3 may impact prostate inflammation and carcinogenesis through the COX-2 enzymatic pathway.