In the present study we evaluated the possible contribution of different factors to the occurrence of hip fractures in Israel. We assessed medical history, physical activity, body mass index, smoking status, bone turnover markers and calcium regulating hormones levels of 142 consecutive elderly hip fracture patients (HFP), and compared them to 96 community dwelling elderly people without a history of hip fracture. Age and female gender were the strongest predictors of hip fracture, p<0.001 and 0.013. Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that HFP had higher PTH and lower 25(OH)D(3) levels, p=0.002, p<0.001; they were less physically active, p<0.001, and had higher rate of vitamin D insufficiency during winter-spring, compared to summer-autumn, p=0.033. Diabetics had higher risk for hip fracture, p=0.06, OR=3.9 (95% CI 1.50-10.4). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) cross links levels were 19.35+/-10.58mg/mg creatinine in HFP and 9.12+/-3.52 in controls, p<0.0001. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)/DPD ratio was 1.5 in controls compared to 0.53 in HFP.

We conclude that age and female gender were the strongest predictors for hip fracture. Diabetic patients had threefold risk for hip fracture. Bone formation/bone resorption ratio was lower in HFP. Vitamin D deficiency and physical inactivity are important preventable risk factors for hip fracture.

Key Words: Hip Fracture, Bone Health, Diabetes - Vitamin D, 25(Oh)D, Physical Activity, Exercise, Bmi, Pth