Hyperoxaluria is one of the major risk factors for the formation of urinary calcium oxalate stones. Calcium oxalate crystals and their deposition have been implicated in inducing renal tubular damage. Lipoic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to ameliorate the changes associated with hyperoxaluria. This prompted us to investigate the nephroprotectant role of EPA-LA, a new derivative, in vivo in hyperoxaluric rats. Elevation in the levels of calcium, oxalate and phosphorus, the stone-forming constituents, were observed in calculogenic rats as a manifestation of crystal deposition.Tubular damage to the renal tissue was assessed byassaying the excretion of marker enzymes in the urine. Damage to the tubules was indicated by increased excretion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), beta-Glucuronidase (beta-GLU) and N-Acetyl beta-D glucosaminidase (NAG). Fibrinolytic activity was found to be reduced. Administration of EPA, LA and EPA-LA reduced the tubular damage and decreased the markers of crystal deposition markedly, which was substantiated by the reduction in weight of bladder stone formed.

Our results highlight that EPA-LA is the most effective drug in inhibiting stone formation and mitigating renal damage caused by oxalate toxicity, thus confirming it as a nephroprotectant. Further work in this direction is warranted to establish the therapeutic effectiveness of this new derivative.